The Japanese Society for Alternatives to Animal Experiments is a scientific organization that undertakes research, development, education, and surveillance activities for promoting international acceptance of the Three Rs as guiding principles for the proper use of animals in scientific testing. The term Three Rs are to:
1. Replacement, which refers to the use of non-animal methods whenever possible,
2. Reduction, which refers to obtaining comparable levels of information from fewer animals, and
3. Refinement, which refers to methods for alleviating potential pain, suffering, or distress of animals used in experiments.
The Three Rs were first described by Russell and Burch in 1959 and were officially endorsed by the 3rd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences as part of the Declaration of Bologna in 1999. More recently, they have been incorporated in laws and official policies in countries all over the world as well as into international standards on the welfare of animals used in experiments.
The Three Rs, as promoted by the Japanese Society for Alternatives to Animal Experiments:
The replacement of test methods that use animals with those that do not use animals or those that use animals of a lower phylogenetic order.
The modification or revision of test methods to obtain comparable levels of information using fewer animals.
The modification of test methods to alleviate or minimize potential pain, suffering, or distress as well as to enhance the welfare of the animals used.
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