ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Real-time Evaluation of Hemocompatible Materials by Human Platelets as an Alternative to Animal Experimentation

Katsuko S Furukawa1,2,3, Satoshi Seki4, Yuki Hirano4, Hanako Miki1,Kazuyuki Mizuhara4, Takashi Yamane5, Tetsuya Tateishi5 and Takashi Ushida1,2,3,6
1Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
2Furukawa Laboratory, Department of Bioegineering, School of Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
3Nano-Bio Integration, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
4Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo, Japan
5Artificial Organ Group, Institute for Human Science and Biomedical Engineering, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki, Japan
6Division of Biomedical Materials and Systems, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan

AATEX 14(2):879-886, 2009

Abstract
To establish alternative methods to animal testing and experimentation for hemocompatible materials, we had been developed an apparatus consisting of a modified cone and plate-type rheometer combined with an upright epi-fluorescence microscope. Through this apparatus, we could conduct real-time evaluation of platelet-material interactions, the initial event of thrombus formation, under shear flow conditions using small platelet suspension volumes (7.5~500 ml per material). The use of human blood from a blood bank allows easy access to large amounts of human blood and does not require medical doctors and volunteer donors to draw the blood. Therefore, to test the hemocompatibility of materials, we used human blood from a blood bank. In order to compare the properties of platelets between fresh and bank blood, the number of adhering platelets, the trigger of the thrombus formation, on two test materials (acrylate resin and polyethylene) was counted under shear flow conditions of 1s-1 and 50s-1. Results showed that there was no difference in the number of adhering platelets to the two material surfaces between the fresh and bank blood under shear flow. However, increase in shear flow decreased the number of adhering platelets. In addition, shear stress changed the rank of the materials. In conclusion, it was suggested that our cone and plate-type rheometer system with human blood from a blood bank is a good alternative to animal experiments for testing and screening the hemocompatibility of materials.

Key words: human blood from bank, cone and plate-type rheometer, shear stress, small volume, hemocompatibility

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(AATEX: Altern. Animal Test. EXperiment.: Alternatives to Animal Testing and EXperimentation)